【LeetCode】0016. 3Sum Closest

Given an array nums of n integers and an integer target, find three integers in nums such that the sum is closest to target. Return the sum of the three integers. You may assume that each input would have exactly one solution.


Example 1:

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Given array nums = [-1, 2, 1, -4], and target = 1.

The sum that is closest to the target is 2. (-1 + 2 + 1 = 2).


Related Topics: ArrayTwo Pointers



解題邏輯與實作

這基本上是 3Sum 的變形,唯一不同的不再是回傳陣列,而是回傳最接近的總和。另外數字相同應該可以不用管,所以我先把它拔掉了。

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class Solution:
   def threeSumClosest(self, nums: List[int], target: int) -> int:
      assert len(nums) >= 3 , " n >= 3"

      diff = 2**32
      ans = 0

      length = len(nums)
      nums.sort()
      for first_idx, first in enumerate(nums[:-2]):
         if first_idx > 0 and first == nums[first_idx-1]:
            continue

         second_idx = first_idx + 1
         third_idx = length -1	
         
         while(second_idx < third_idx): 
            second = nums[second_idx] 
            third = nums[third_idx]

            summation = first + second + third   
            
            if abs(target-summation) < diff:
               diff = abs(target-summation)
               ans = summation

            if summation < target:
               second_idx += 1
            elif summation > target:
               third_idx -= 1
            else:
               break

      return ans

不過這份程式碼的效能有點差,只跑出了 176 / 27.85% 的成績,所以我這邊又加上了一些邊界的判斷進行剪枝,加速迴圈的進行。



這邊加上了兩個條件

  1. 在固定首位數字後與剩餘數列中頭兩個數字,計算三數之和。若和大於 target ,則與之前紀錄下來答案相比,回傳最接近的 target 的值。
    這是因為在陣列已排序且首位數字固定的情況下,剩餘數列中頭兩個數字和理應會是最小;且在尋訪的過程中,首位數字會逐漸加大,所以一旦出現首位數字與剩餘數列中頭兩個數字和大於 target 的狀況,其後的和皆會大於 target,且差值會愈來越大。因此一旦出現這狀況,即可停止尋訪。

  2. 在固定首位數字後與剩餘數列中末兩個數字,計算三數之和。若和小於 target ,直接向下尋訪下一個首位數字。
    這是因為在陣列已排序且首位數字固定的情況下,剩餘數列中末兩個數字之和理應是最大,因此若此值小於 target,其他和也會小於 target,且差值大於此值。因此僅需紀錄目前的狀況後,直接尋訪下一個首位數字即可,無須在考慮目前首位數字的其他組合。

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class Solution:
   def threeSumClosest(self, nums: List[int], target: int) -> int:
      assert len(nums) >= 3 , " n >= 3"

      diff = 2**32
      ans = 0

      length = len(nums)
      nums.sort()
      for first_idx, first in enumerate(nums[:-2]):
         if first_idx > 0 and first == nums[first_idx-1]:
                        continue

         summation = first + nums[first_idx+1] + nums[first_idx+2] 
         if summation > target:
            return summation if abs(target- summation) < diff else ans


         summation = first + nums[length-2] + nums[length-1] 
         if summation < target:
            if abs(target- summation) < diff :
               diff = abs(target-summation)
               ans = summation
            continue


         second_idx = first_idx + 1
         third_idx = length -1	

         while(second_idx < third_idx): 
            second =   nums[second_idx] 
            third = nums[third_idx]

            summation = first + second + third   

            if summation == target:
               return summation
            elif summation < target:
               second_idx += 1
            else:
               third_idx -= 1

            if abs(target-summation) < diff:
               diff = abs(target-summation)
               ans = summation

      return ans

改良的效果有點出乎意料,比我想像好很多從 176 / 27.85% 提升到 28 / 100%



其他連結

  1. 【LeetCode】0000. 解題目錄